The dangers of space travel: Apollo astronauts experience increased cardiovascular problems

A new study has found that astronauts involved in the Apollo space programme experience higher rates of cardiovascular-related deaths than those who never ventured beyond low-Earth orbit – the cause of which is likely to be exposure to deep space radiation.

The paper, published in Scientific Reports by Florida State University (FSU) Dean of the College of Human Sciences Professor Michael Delp, notes that the men who travelled into deep space as part of the Apollo missions were exposed to very high levels of galactic cosmic radiation.

And it is this exposure to radiation that is now manifesting itself as cardiovascular problems, which could have deep implications for future missions beyond low-Earth orbit, including those to Mars.

Apollo 16 astronauts Thomas K Mattingly II and Charles M Duke undertake a spacewalk during the mission. Above: Duke in his role as lunar module pilot during the Apollo 16 lunar landing

Apollo 16 astronauts Thomas K Mattingly II and Charles M Duke undertake a spacewalk during the mission. Above: Duke in his role as lunar module pilot during the Apollo 16 lunar landing

The Apollo space programme ran from 1961 to 1972, with 11 manned flights into space – nine of which flew beyond Earth’s orbit into deep space. This study is the first to look at the mortality rate of these Apollo astronauts.

“We know very little about the effects of deep space radiation on human health, particularly on the cardiovascular system,” Delp explained. “This gives us the first glimpse into its adverse effects on humans.”

The research is of particular interest as the US, other nations and private organisations continue to make plans for deep space travel. Elon Musk ‘s SpaceX, for example, has proposed landing humans on Mars by 2026. And NASA plans to launch orbital missions around the moon from 2020 to 2030.

While astronauts have access to top medical care, the Apollo mission members did experience vastly different environmental conditions when they travelled into deep space – conditions that, the study has found, have affected their health.

The study revealed that 43% of deceased Apollo astronauts died from cardiovascular problems – four to five times higher than non-flight astronauts and those who travelled in low-Earth orbit.

Apollo 8 astronauts make their way to the launch pad to begin the mission, led by commander colonel Frank Borman and command module pilot James A Lovell Jr. Images courtesy of NASA

Apollo 8 astronauts make their way to the launch pad to begin the mission, led by commander colonel Frank Borman and command module pilot James A Lovell Jr. Images courtesy of NASA

A total of 24 men travelled into deep space as part of the Apollo lunar missions – eight have died; seven were included in the study (the eighth died after the data analysis had been completed).

Delp’s team carried out an animal test as part of the research, exposing mice to the type of radiation that Apollo astronauts would have experienced. After six months, or the equivalent of 20 human years, the mice showed damage to arteries that is known to lead to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

“What the mouse data show is that deep space radiation is harmful to vascular health,” Delp said. He is currently working with NASA to carry out further studies on the Apollo astronauts with regard to their cardiovascular health.

Wanted man captured thanks to facial recognition

A Chinese man who was wanted by police for “economic crimes” – which can include anything from tax evasion to the theft of public property – was arrested at a music concert in China after facial recognition technology spotted him inside the venue.

Source: Abacus News

SpaceX president commits to city-to-city rocket travel

SpaceX president and chief operating officer Gwynne Shotwell has reiterated the company’s plans to make city-to-city travel — on Earth — using a rocket that’s designed for outer space a reality. Shotwell says the tech will be operational “within a decade, for sure.”

Source: Recode

Businessman wins battle with Google over 'right to be forgotten'

A businessman fighting for the "right to be forgotten" has won a UK High Court action against Google.. The businessman served six months’ in prison for “conspiracy to carry out surveillance”, and the judge agreed to an “appropriate delisting order".

Source: Press Gazette

UK launched cyber attack on Islamic State

The UK has conducted a "major offensive cyber campaign" against the Islamic State group, the director of the intelligence agency GCHQ, Jeremy Fleming, has revealed. The operation hindered the group's ability to co-ordinate attacks and suppressed its propaganda.

Source: BBC

Goldman Sachs consider whether curing patients is bad for business

Goldman Sachs analysts have attempted to tackle the question of whether pioneering "gene therapy" treatment will be bad for business in the long run. "Is curing patients a sustainable business model?" analysts ask in a report entitled "The Genome Revolution."

Source: CNBC

Four-armed robot performing surgery in the UK

A £1.5m "robotic" surgeon, controlled using a computer console, is being used to shorten the time patients spend recovering after operations. The da Vinci Xi machine is the only one in the country being used for upper gastrointestinal surgery.

Source: BBC

Virgin Galactic rocket planes go past the speed of sound

Virgin Galactic completed its first powered flight in nearly four years when Richard Branson's space company launched its Unity spacecraft, which reached supersonic speeds before safely landing. “We’ve been working towards this moment for a long time,” Virgin Galactic CEO George Whitesides said in an email to Quartz.

Source: Quartz

Google employees protest being in "the business of war"

Thousands of Google employees, including dozens of senior engineers, have signed a letter protesting the company’s involvement in a Pentagon program that uses AI to interpret video imagery and could be used to improve the targeting of drone strikes. The letter, which is circulating inside Google, has garnered more than 3,100 signatures

Source: New York Times

Computer system transcribes words users “speak silently”

MIT researchers have developed a computer interface that transcribes words that the user verbalises internally but does not actually speak aloud. The wearable device picks up neuromuscular signals in the jaw and face that are triggered by internal verbalisations — saying words “in your head” — but are undetectable to the human eye.

Source: MIT News

Drones could be used to penalise bad farming

A report by a coalition of environmental campaigners is arguing squadrons of drones should be deployed to locate and penalise farmers who let soil run off their fields. Their report says drones can help to spot bad farming, which is said to cost more than £1.2bn a year by clogging rivers and contributing to floods.

Source: BBC

Californian company unveil space hotel

Orion Span, a California company, has unveiled its Aurora Station, a commercial space station that would house a luxury hotel. The idea is to put the craft in low-earth orbit, about 200 miles up, with a stay at the hotel likely to cost $9.5 million for a 12-day trip, but you can reserve a spot now with an $80,000 deposit.

UK mobile operators pay close to £1.4bn for 5G

An auction of frequencies for the next generation of mobile phone networks has raised £1.36bn, says regulator Ofcom. Vodafone, EE, O2 and Three all won the bandwidth needed for the future 5G mobile internet services, which are not expected to be launched until 2020.

Source: BBC